Stigma in visible skin diseases – A literature review and development of a conceptual model

Stigma in visible skin diseases – A literature review and development of a conceptual model

2021 Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology

Germain, N. | Augustin, M. | François, C. | Legau, K. | Bogoeva, N. | Desroches, M. | Toumi, M. | Sommer, R. | Volume: n/a, Issue: n/a, Pages: ,

Summary The burden of visible skin diseases (VSDs) includes not only physical symptoms but also psychosocial consequences such as depression, anxiety, impaired quality of life and low self-esteem. Stigmatisation was shown to play a major role in people with skin diseases The aim of the study was to review the evidence for the components, drivers, and impacts of (self-) stigma, and to organise the data into a series of conceptual models. A targeted literature search was conducted to identify studies on (self-) stigma in relation to VSD. Conceptual models of stigma in VSDs were developed from existing generic conceptual models for VSD and of generic conceptual models of stigma and were refined after discussion with a board of experts, patient advocacy groups, clinicians and researchers. A total of 580 references were identified, of which 56 references were analysed and summarised. Two conceptual models of stigma were identified: one with external stigma and self-stigma dimensions, the other for self-stigma in mental health. These models were adapted to allow a complete description of stigma in VSDs. For this, a distinction was made between ‘discrimination’ and ‘impact’. Finally, five models were developed: Macro-overview; Stigma, Impact and Socio-demographics; Stigma, Impact and Disease Characteristics; Stigma, Impact and Quality of Life; and Stigma, Impact and Coping. Gaps were identified in available quantitative evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first conceptual model of stigma in VSDs. The model will help to standardise evaluation of stigma and to enhance empirical evaluation of anti-stigma interventions in VSDs. Further research should be conducted to develop a more complete model in stigma due to significant gaps in existing evidence, particularly including the stigma in others (external stigma) and also to cover a broader range of VSDs as their impact on particular dimensions of stigma differs.

https://www.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.17110