Although several factors influencing schizophrenic patients’ compliance with neuroleptic treatment have been investigated, the subjective reasons that patients are willing or reluctant to take medication have rarely been examined. In a follow-up study of a sample of schizophrenic patients currently undergoing psychiatric treatment in the city of Leipzig, 307 patients were asked about their subjective reasons for medication compliance or noncompliance by administering the Rating of Medication Influences (ROMI) Scale. The perceived benefit from medication proved to be the main reason for patients’ compliance with neuroleptic treatment. Respectively, patient-reported noncompliance was mainly explained by negative side effects of medication. However, there were no statistically significant differences in responses between the patients receiving conventional versus second-generation antipsychotics. A positive relationship with the therapist and a positive attitude of significant others toward neuroleptic treatment contributed to patients’ medication compliance. Reasons for noncompliance with neuroleptic treatment were lack of acceptance of the necessity of pharmacological treatment and lack of insight into the disease. The results emphasize the importance of psychoeducation in enhancing patient compliance with neuroleptic treatment.