A registry of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) was set up for the entire population of adult kidney transplant recipients in France. Cases of PTLD were prospectively enrolled between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2007. Ten-year cumulative incidence was analyzed in patients transplanted after January 1, 1989. PTLD risk factors were analyzed in patients transplanted after January 1, 1998 by Cox analysis. Cumulative incidence was 1% after 5 years, 2.1% after 10 years. Multivariate analysis showed that PTLD was significantly associated with: older age of the recipient 47-60 years and >60 years (vs. 33-46 years, adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 1.87, CI = 1.22-2.86 and AHR = 2.80, CI = 1.73-4.55, respectively, p < 0.0001), simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation (AHR = 2.52, CI = 1.27-5.01 p = 0.008), year of transplant 1998-1999 and 2000-2001 (vs. 2006-2007, AHR = 3.36, CI = 1.64-6.87 and AHR = 3.08, CI = 1.55-6.15, respectively, p = 0.003), EBV mismatch (HR = 5.31, CI = 3.36-8.39, p < 0.001), 5 or 6 HLA mismatches (vs. 0-4, AHR = 1.54, CI = 1.12-2.12, p = 0.008), and induction therapy (AHR = 1.42, CI = 1-2.02, p = 0.05). Analyses of subgroups of PTLD provided new information about PTLD risk factors for early, late, EBV positive and negative, polymorphic, monomorphic, graft and cerebral lymphomas. This nationwide study highlights the increased risk of PTLD as long as 10 years after transplantation and the role of cofactors in modifying PTLD risk, particularly in specific PTLD subgroups.