Abstract Aim To characterize patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB), their treatment patterns, healthcare resource utilization, and associated costs based on records from a primary care database in the United Kingdom. Methods This was a retrospective, descriptive, observational study of anonymized data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics databases (selection period, 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2016). Adults with a definitive or probable diagnosis of NGB and ≥1 referral to a urologist were included. Results The study cohort included 3913 patients with definitive (n?=?363) or probable (n?=?3550) NGB. Patients had a mean of 8.6 (standard deviation [SD], 7.6) comorbidities, and mean Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale score of 6.6 (SD, 5.9). During 12 months? follow-up, urinary tract infection (UTI) and urinary incontinence were the most common complications. Most patients (92.2%) received ≥1 prescription for an antimuscarinic agent or mirabegron, and 53.9% of patients received prescriptions for UTI-specific antibiotics. The mean number of visits to a general practitioner for any cause was 67.7 (SD, 42.6) per individual. Almost half (46.7%) of the study cohort visited a specialist during the 12-month follow-up period, and 11.0% had ≥1 hospital admission. Total mean per patient costs for healthcare resource utilization was £2395. Conclusions The burden of illness, healthcare resource needs, and associated costs among patients with NGB are considerable. Drug prescribing patterns are consistent with the symptoms and complications of NGB, although increased awareness of drugs with anticholinergic activity among prescribers may help to reduce the cumulative anticholinergic burden in this vulnerable population.