OBJECTIVE: To analyze changes in hormone therapy (HT) use after the publication of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) results, in a country (France) where HT is different from that assessed in the WHI. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Women in the GAZEL cohort of employees of the French national power company. PARTICIPANT(S): One thousand six hundred five postmenopausal women ever-users of HT. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Discontinuation of HT. RESULT(S): Rates of discontinuation were higher after 2002: 65% of users who began HT in 1998 were still using it after 5 years. In contrast, >90% of those who began before 1994 were still using it after 5 years. Discontinuation was associated with women’s social and medical characteristics and with factors related to side effects and expectations concerning HT. After adjustment for these factors, women were twice as likely to stop HT after publication of the WHI. CONCLUSION(S): Even in France, publication of the WHI has led to a decline in HT use.