Objectives: Blockchain consists of a shared database used to maintain a continuously growing list of transactions, called blocks. Blockchain technology has started in 2008 with the first decentralized digital currency “Bitcoin”. Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency and a digital payment system that can be exchanged for other currencies or products. New potential uses of blockchain are under investigation among which its application in healthcare “healthcoin”. Our aim was to review the available information on healthcoin to gain a better understanding of this concept and its applicability. Methods: A literature review was conducted in Pubmed and the grey literature using the keywords: Healthcoin, blockchain, healthcare, financing, breakthrough therapies. Articles in French and English were included and no timelines restrictions were applied. Results: : Founded in 2016 by Diego Espinosa and Nick Gogerty, healthcoin was the first blockchain based platform for rewarding prevention of diabetes. Users submit their biomarkers (hemoglobin A1c) into the blockchain that automatically calculates the improvement and awards the patient digital tokens: “healthcoins”. For each healthcoin earned, a tax break can be offered by the government; a discount on fitness brands can be offered to reward patients. This same currency concept was adapted by Basu et al. 2016 as a new financing method for breakthrough therapies for diabetes. It converts the incremental benefits produced by the novel therapy to a common numeraire such as life years gained. It is a currency that could be traded between the private payers and Medicare in the United States, rewarding the former to invest in breakthrough therapies that provide important efficacy for patients before the age of 65. Conclusions: Healthcoin may potentially constitute a revolution for the healthcare sector. Healthcare industry can share and store information transparently through healthcoin. Further studies to assess the feasibility of healthcoin payments may be interesting for payers and decision makers.