AIMS: There have been no systematic literature reviews (SLRs) evaluating the identified association between outcomes (e.g. clinical, functional, adherence, societal burden) and Quality of Life (QoL) or Healthcare Resource Utilization (HCRU) in schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to conduct a SLR of published data on the relationship between outcomes and QoL or HCRU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in Embase and Medline, for articles which reported on the association between outcomes and QoL or HCRU. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to identify the most relevant articles and studies and extract their data. A summary table was developed to illustrate the strength of associations, based on p-values and correlations. RESULTS: One thousand and two abstracts were retrieved; 5 duplicates were excluded. 997 abstracts were screened and 95 references were retained for full-text screening. 31 references were included in the review. The most commonly used questionnaire, which also demonstrated the strongest associations (defined as a p < 0.0001 and/or correlation +/- 0.70), was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) associated with HCRU and QoL (the SF-36, the Schizophrenia Quality of Life questionnaire [S-QOL-18], the Quality of Life Scale [QLS]). Other robust correlations included the Clinical Global Impression - Severity (CGI-S) with QoL (EQ5D), relapse with HCRU and remission with QoL (EQ5D). Lastly, functioning (Work Rehabilitation Questionnaire [WORQ] and Personal and Social Performance Scale [PSP]) was found to be associated to QoL (QLS and Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics Questionnaire [SWN]). LIMITATIONS: This study included data from an 11-year period and other instruments less frequently used may be further investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence suggests that the PANSS is the clinical outcome that currently provides the most frequent and systematic associations with HCRU and QoL endpoints in schizophrenia.