Mental and Sexual Health of Polish Women of Reproductive Age During the COVID-19 Pandemic – An Online Survey
2021 Sex Medhttps://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.esxm.2021.100367 COVID-19 Pandemic, Female Health, Mental Health, Polish Population, Sexual Dysfunction, Sexual Health,
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic can cause emotional distress, which can in turn lead to the development of mental and physical symptoms. AIM: We examined the association of the COVID-19 outbreak and the mental, physical and sexual health of the female Polish population. METHODS: Data were collected in an online survey distributed on social media from April 22, 2020 through to May 7, 2020. The data collection began one month after the start of lockdown in Poland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Women were asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. RESULTS: Overall, 1644 women (median age 23 years) took part in the survey. They reported a lower frequency of sexual activity (P < .001) and a lower libido level (P < .001) during the pandemic then before it. 57.5% of the study group (n = 944) strongly agreed or agreed that fear of the health condition of loved ones was a source of stress and depressed mood. The average BDI-II total score was 11 (range 0-51; IQR 5-18), which corresponds to minimal depression. The average FSFI total score was 27.01 ± 7.61 (range 2-36). The FSFI and BDI scores were significantly correlated (P < .001). The FSFI score was significantly correlated with the presence of any comorbid chronic disease, the intensity of the fear of infection and fear of health conditions, perceived loneliness, and the being up to date with media news. The BDI score was significantly correlated with age, the intensity of the fear of infection and fear of health conditions, perceived loneliness, being up to date with media news, and the more frequent use of stimulants. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown setting was associated with a high occurrence of depressive symptoms and increased risk of sexual dysfunction with decreased libido and lower sexual frequency the most commonly reported issues. Szuster E, Kostrzewska P, Pawlikowska A, et al. Mental and Sexual Health of Polish Women of Reproductive Age During the COVID-19 Pandemic - An Online Survey. Sex Med 2021;XX:XXXXXX.
Stigma in visible skin diseases – A literature review and development of a conceptual model
2021 Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereologyhttps://www.doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/jdv.17110
Summary The burden of visible skin diseases (VSDs) includes not only physical symptoms but also psychosocial consequences such as depression, anxiety, impaired quality of life and low self-esteem. Stigmatisation was shown to play a major role in people with skin diseases The aim of the study was to review the evidence for the components, drivers, and impacts of (self-) stigma, and to organise the data into a series of conceptual models. A targeted literature search was conducted to identify studies on (self-) stigma in relation to VSD. Conceptual models of stigma in VSDs were developed from existing generic conceptual models for VSD and of generic conceptual models of stigma and were refined after discussion with a board of experts, patient advocacy groups, clinicians and researchers. A total of 580 references were identified, of which 56 references were analysed and summarised. Two conceptual models of stigma were identified: one with external stigma and self-stigma dimensions, the other for self-stigma in mental health. These models were adapted to allow a complete description of stigma in VSDs. For this, a distinction was made between ‘discrimination’ and ‘impact’. Finally, five models were developed: Macro-overview; Stigma, Impact and Socio-demographics; Stigma, Impact and Disease Characteristics; Stigma, Impact and Quality of Life; and Stigma, Impact and Coping. Gaps were identified in available quantitative evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first conceptual model of stigma in VSDs. The model will help to standardise evaluation of stigma and to enhance empirical evaluation of anti-stigma interventions in VSDs. Further research should be conducted to develop a more complete model in stigma due to significant gaps in existing evidence, particularly including the stigma in others (external stigma) and also to cover a broader range of VSDs as their impact on particular dimensions of stigma differs.
The impact of COVID-19 on the cell and gene therapies industry: Disruptions, opportunities, and future prospects
2021 Drug discovery todayhttps://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2021.04.020 COVID-19, Cell and gene therapies, Health technology assessment, Regulatory,
Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has caused significant disruption to the cell and gene therapy (CGT) industry, which has historically faced substantial complexities in supply of materials, and manufacturing and logistics processes. As decision-makers shifted their priorities to COVID-19-related issues, the challenges in market authorisation, and price and reimbursement of CGTs were amplified. Nevertheless, it is encouraging to see that some CGT developers are adapting their efforts toward the development of promising COVID-19-related therapeutics and vaccines. Manufacturing resilience, digitalisation, telemedicine, value-based pricing, and innovative payment mechanisms will be increasingly harnessed to ensure that market access of CGTs is not severely disrupted.
Targeted Literature Review of the Burden of Illness in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes
2021 Am J Manag Care
What Makes the UK Recovery Trial More Pragmatic than the European Discovery Trial?
2020 Preprintshttps://www.doi.org/ 10.20944/preprints202006.0229.v1 preprint, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19,
The objective of this study was to review the study design and preliminary results of the Recovery trial and analyze the implementability of the Recovery trial by comparing it with the European Discovery trial.Method: The study design of the Recovery trial in the latest version of protocol was described and deeply analyzed to address the issue of implementation of the trial. A comparative analysis of study design and implementation between the UK Recovery trial and the European Discovery trial was conducted following the description.Results: The Recovery trial is a pragmatic, randomized, controlled, adaptive, open-label clinical trial. The study design of the Recovery trial was reported in the ISRCTN registry, the EU Clinical Trials Register and the U.S. National Library of Medicine ClinicalTrials.gov registry. Initially published on the 13th March 2020, the study protocol of the Recovery trial has been updated five times at the time of this writing. More than 11,000 patients have been enrolled and 80% have completed the follow-up. Thousands of health care professionals at 175 Trusts in the UK have been involved. Conclusion: The Recovery trial applies a study design to address the issue of implementation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and emergency. It was conceptually pragmatic with a clear vision to address the top priority: the control of mortality and rational use of scarce resources. By contrast, the Discovery trial was designed as an intellectual exercise and consequently failed to address the issue of implementation in emergency.
Factors influencing the COVID-19 daily deaths peak across European countries
2020 medRxivhttps://www.doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.04.20225656 p,
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine predictors of the height of COVID- 19 daily deaths peak and time to the peak, in order to explain their variability across European countries.STUDY DESIGN For 34 European countries, publicly available data were collected on daily numbers of COVID-19 deaths, population size, healthcare capacity, government restrictions and their timing, tourism and change in mobility during the pandemic.METHODS Univariate and multivariate generalised linear models using different selection algorithms (forward, backward, stepwise and genetic algorithm) were analysed with height of COVID-19 daily deaths peak and time to the peak as dependent variables.RESULTS The proportion of the population living in urban areas, mobility at the day of first reported death and number of infections when borders were closed were assessed as significant predictors of the height of COVID-19 daily deaths peak. Testing the model with variety of selection algorithms provided consistent results. Total hospital bed capacity, population size, number of foreign travellers and day of border closure, were found as significant predictors of time to COVID-19 daily deaths peak.CONCLUSIONS Our analysis demonstrated that countries with higher proportions of the population living in urban areas, with lower reduction in mobility at the beginning of the pandemic, and countries which closed borders having more infected people experienced higher peak of COVID-19 deaths. Greater bed capacity, bigger population size and later border closure could result in delaying time to reach the deaths peak, whereas a high number of foreign travellers could accelerate it.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementThis research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.Author DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:Not applicableAll necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).YesI have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesThe authors confirm that the data supporting the findings of this study are available within the article and its supplementary materials.
Outcomes-based reimbursement for gene therapies in practice: the experience of recently launched CAR-T cell therapies in major European countries
2020 J Mark Access Health Policyhttps://www.doi.org/10.1080/20016689.2020.1715536 Health Technology Assessment (HTA), chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, gene therapy, haematology, market access, oncology, reimbursement,
Background: The experience of Kymriah® and Yescarta® provides real-world examples of how health-care systems approach and manage the reimbursement of one-off, high-cost, cell, and gene therapies, and the decision uncertainty and affordability challenges they present. Objective: To provide an overview of the reimbursement schemes used for Kymriah® and Yescarta® in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK (EU5) as per the final quarter of 2019; to identify challenges and derive learnings for future product launches. Methodology: Secondary research, complemented by primary research with key market access stakeholders. Findings: Kymriah® and Yescarta® have relatively uniform list prices across the EU5, and are reimbursed according to their marketing authorisations. In France and the UK, reimbursement is on the condition of collecting additional data (at the cohort level) and subject to future reassessments; elsewhere, rebates (Germany) or staged payments (Italy and Spain) are linked to individual patient outcomes. Conclusions: The experience of Kymriah® and Yescarta® shows an increased appetite for outcomes-based reimbursement (OBR) in the EU5, with notably novel approaches applied in Italy and Spain (outcomes-based staged payments). Thus, real-world evidence (RWE) has become an increasingly powerful lever for demonstrating the value of health benefits in the clinical setting.
Cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban versus warfarin for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the Japanese healthcare setting
2020 J Med Econhttps://www.doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2019.1688821 Cost-effectiveness analysis, I11, I15, Japan, non-valvular atrial fibrillation, rivaroxaban, stroke prevention,
Aims: This article aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of rivaroxaban in comparison to warfarin for stroke prevention in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), from a public healthcare payer’s perspective.Materials and methods: Baseline event risks were obtained from the J-ROCKET AF trial and the treatment effect data were taken from a network meta-analysis. The other model inputs were extracted from the literature and official Japanese sources. The outcomes included the number of ischaemic strokes, myocardial infarctions, systemic embolisms and bleedings avoided, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The scenario analysis considered treatment effect data from the same network meta-analysis.Results: In comparison with warfarin, rivaroxaban was estimated to avoid 0.284 ischaemic strokes per patient, to increase the number of QALYs by 0.535 per patient and to decrease the total costs by ¥118,892 (€1,011.11) per patient (1 JPY = 0.00850638 EUR; XE.com, 7 October 2019). Consequently, rivaroxaban treatment was found to be dominant compared to warfarin. In the scenario analysis, the ICER of rivaroxaban versus warfarin was ¥2,873,499 (€24,446.42) per QALY.Limitations: The various sources of data used resulted in the heterogeneity of the cost-effectiveness analysis results. Although, rivaroxaban was cost-effective in the majority of cases.Conclusion: Rivaroxaban is cost-effective against warfarin for stroke prevention in Japanese patients with NVAF, giving the payer WTP of 5,000,000 JPY.
Regional variations in Helicobacter pylori infection, gastric atrophy and gastric cancer risk: The ENIGMA study in Chile
2020 PloS onehttps://www.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0237515 Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Atrophy/etiology/microbiology/pathology, Child, Child, Preschool, Chile/epidemiology, Female, Helicobacter Infections/*complications/epidemiology/microbiology/pathology, Helicobacter pylori/*isolation & purification, Humans, Infant, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Stomach/microbiology/*pathology, Stomach Neoplasms/*etiology/microbiology/pathology, Young Adult,
BACKGROUND: Regional variations in gastric cancer incidence are not explained by prevalence of Helicobacter pylori, the main cause of the disease, with several areas presenting high H. pylori prevalence but low gastric cancer incidence. The IARC worldwide H. pylori prevalence surveys (ENIGMA) aim at systematically describing age and sex-specific prevalence of H. pylori infection around the world and generating hypotheses to explain regional variations in gastric cancer risk. METHODS: We selected age- and sex-stratified population samples in two areas with different gastric cancer incidence and mortality in Chile: Antofagasta (lower rate) and Valdivia (higher rate). Participants were 1-69 years old and provided interviews and blood for anti-H. pylori antibodies (IgG, VacA, CagA, others) and atrophy biomarkers (pepsinogens). RESULTS: H. pylori seroprevalence (Age-standardized to world population) and antibodies against CagA and VacA were similar in both sites. H. pylori seroprevalence was 20% among children <10 years old, 40% among 10-19 year olds, 60% in the 20-29 year olds and close to or above 80% in those 30+ years. The comparison of the prevalence of known and potential H. pylori cofactors in gastric carcinogenesis between the high and the low risk area showed that consumption of chili products was significantly higher in Valdivia and daily non-green vegetable consumption was more common in Antofagasta. Pepsinogen levels suggestive of gastric atrophy were significantly more common and occurred at earlier ages in Valdivia, the higher risk area. In a multivariate model combining both study sites, age, chili consumption and CagA were the main risk factors for gastric atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of H. pylori infection and its virulence factors was similar in the high and the low risk area, but atrophy was more common and occurred at younger ages in the higher risk area. Dietary factors could partly explain higher rates of atrophy and gastric cancer in Valdivia. IMPACT: The ENIGMA study in Chile contributes to better understanding regional variations in gastric cancer incidence and provides essential information for public health interventions.
Commentary on “Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open label non-randomized clinical trial” by Gautret et al
2020 Journal of Market Access & Health Policyhttps://www.doi.org/10.1080/20016689.2020.1758390 Coronavirus, COVID 19, COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, public health, decision-making,
ABSTRACTThe results of a clinical trial comparing hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin to the standard of care for the treatment of COVID-19 were recently published by Philippe Gautret et al. This study provides outstanding results for the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin over the standard of care, but the evidence was deemed insufficiently robust to warrant a public health decision to widen the use of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19. We provide a scientific critical review of the Gautret et al. publication, put the results in the context of the current knowledge, provide an evaluation of the validity of the results (from a methodologic perspective), and discuss public health implications. The study has a number of limitations, including small sample size, lack of comparability between patients in active treatment and control arms, lack of blinding, use of interim analyses without controlling for the risk of type 1 error, use of analysis in the per-protocol population instead of the intention-to-treat population, and inconsistencies between the study protocol and article. However, none of these observations is of a nature to reverse the conclusions. The study brings useful knowledge consistent with available evidence and clinical practice from China and South Korea, which could have prompted quicker policy decision-making.